A Biologist Explains How Animals Feel Pain

We, of course, cannot read animals’ minds (even our pets) but that doesn’t mean we can’t intuit some of the ways they feel pain. According to evolutionary biologist Robyn J. Crook in a recent TED-Ed video, humans have two kinds of reaction to pain. First, nerves sense pain, communicate it and cause a jerking reaction. Second, there is conscious recognition—this is what we associate with …